If you are using progesterone for the first time, please read - Vitamin D3  Estrogen Dominance and First Time Users


There are so many reasons and causes contributing towards infertility.  Here are a few common factors which contribute to the signs:

  • a progesterone deficiency
  • a vitamin D3 deficiency
  • high estrogen and/or testosterone levels
  • high FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)
  • high LH (luteinising hormone)
  • oxidative stress due to a lack of antioxidants
  • contraceptives - these can cause the ovaries to malfunction after discontinuing
  • stress of any kind
  • endometriosis
  • PCOS (poly cystic ovaries syndrome/cystic ovaries)
  • environmental toxins - particularly estrogen mimics
  • overweight
  • underweight
  • a deficient diet leading to malnutrition
  • low sperm counts or abnormal sperm
  • diabetes
  • hyperprolactinemia
  • thyroid disorders

One of the most common reasons, yet not much is known, is a lack of progesterone during the second half of the monthly cycle.  This is known as 'defective luteal phase'.  During the first half of the menstruation cycle, estrogen will stimulate the lining of the uterus.  This is known as the follicular or proliferative stage.  Once ovulation has taken place and progesterone is being secreted by the corpus luteum, the lining thickens in preparation for the fertilised egg.  The luteal or differentiation phase is known as the second half of the menstrual cycle which should last 12 to 14 days.

Progesterone - is needed for pregnancy to take place.  If the time between ovulation and menstruation is too short - less that 12 days - it means that inadequate progesterone has been produced.

Often conception takes place in a fertile woman but the egg fails to embed itself into the lining which could result in a miscarriage as early as the next menstruation.  This could be that while fertility is high, progesterone is actually low which appears as if the woman is infertile.

Signs of a miscarriage might be a heavier period, clots and/or pain. The egg takes about 12-14 days to reach the uterus, if the corpus luteum does not maintain a high level of progesterone during this time, menstruation will take place before the egg is embedded.  This can be easily corrected by supplementing with progesterone thereby extending the luteal phase.

The anovulatory cycle is another sign of infertility.  This is when ovulation does not take place and is common in woman in their mid-thirties, although younger women are now also suffering from these cycles.  Excessive FSH and LH causes this.  Too much FSH and LH stimulates the ovaries which in turn make too much estrogen and testosterone.  If these four hormones are in excess, ovulation is prevented as well as the production of progesterone. Excessive use of contraceptives or stress is believed to be the cause.

Contraceptives - so many woman fail to ovulate when they stop using contraceptives.  As they are designed to stop ovulation, they can cause temporary infertility.  Initially the ovaries make estrogen and testosterone, but it can take a few cycles later before the ovaries start ovulating. A severe imbalance takes place in the ovaries if the level of estrogen and testosterone is too high.  Supplementing with progesterone with regulate the cycle.

Stress - is also a major concern.  It drops progesterone levels and raises cortisol levels which are both signs of infertility.  The adrenals produce progesterone before converting it into cortisol.  If the adrenals are exhausted, they will find other sources of progesterone, normally ovarian.  This impacts on the reproductive cycle.  Stress can also cause anovulation and miscarriages.  Progesterone is excellent for stress as it activates the GABA receptor sites.  GABA is one of the most calming neurotransmitters.

Oxidative Stress -  is often the cause behind anovulation.  A vitamin D3 deficiency causes oxidative stress to the ovaries causing them to malfunction. Vitamin D3 is also essential for the developing foetus.  Please consider having a vitamin D3 test. Other antioxidants maybe needed to help with oxidative stress.

Endometriosis - is caused by too much estrogen and oxidative stress which leads to Inflammation, a definite sign of infertility.  This now causes problems to any egg trying to embed itself in the endometrium.  High doses of progesterone is needed to help reverse this.

Hormonal imbalances are another reason for infertility, environmental toxins being the cause.  Over 100 estrogen mimics are available today - please see Our Stolen Future for more information on this.  Problems then occur when the developing foetus is subjected to the toxins.  Males are prone  to the effects of these toxins (estrogen) at this stage.

Being overweight is another reason for infertility.  The adrenal glands make a hormone called androstenedione which can be converted by fat cells into estrone (oestrone) which is one of the estrogens.  This causes estrogen levels to increase causing an imbalance.  Progesterone will counteract the excess.  Even low body fat is a concern.  Woman must keep their body fat above 20% of their total weight otherwise menstruation stops.

Diet is always important.  A diet deficient in good quality protein and the good fats and oils can lead to malnutrition causing the ovaries to malfunction.  A lack of protein can lead to hyperprolactinemia due to lack of tyrosine in the diet.  Tyrosine is an amino acid and is the precursor to dopamine which is needed to increase dopamine level. Prolactin will now increase with the high estrogen level and low dopamine level.  As with estrogen, it also suppresses progesterone.  Progesterone is now needed to suppress estrogen and prolactin.

Low or abnormal sperm counts in men could also be a sign of infertility.    Zinc is extremely important as high levels are found in the male sex organs and sperm, please supplement if deficient.  Manganese deficiency can also lead to defective ovulation, testicular degeneration and infant mortality.

PCOS - (poly cystic ovary syndrome) is becoming an increasing problem worldwide and is one of the most common signs of infertility.  Anovulation takes place often which leads to problems conceiving and carrying a child.  Like endometriosis, oxidative stress is the major cause.  Anti-oxidants are essential, particularly vitamin D3, both these have successfully reversed PCOS in a number of women.

Diabetes - is another reason and miscarriages do take place as well as birth defects due to high blood glucose.  Please see Insulin Resistance

Thyroid - both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism can affect ovarian function.  A vitamin D3 and iodine deficiency can cause the thyroid to malfunction.  Please have these tested.

Other signs are - STD's, adrenal disease, genetic factors, tubal blockage and age.

Watch this video on Vitamin D3 and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases.

To re-cap - the following needs to be considered:

  • progesterone - 200mg, possibly more per day is needed.  This is dependant on symptoms
  • vitamin D3 - most important to have a test done.  More information on the Vitamin D page
  • PCOS/Endometriosis - high doses of antioxidants are needed
  • prolactin level - if high, take tyrosine (amino acid)
  • zinc and iodine levels need to be tested
  • diabetes - test for insulin resistance
  • stress - try to avoid as much as possible



Effects of dietary zinc depletion on seminal volume and zinc loss, serum testosterone concentrations, and sperm morphology in young men

Comparison of zinc concentrations in blood and seminal plasma and the various sperm parameters between fertile and infertile men

Zinc deficiency in men with Crohn's disease may contribute to poor sperm function and male infertility

Endocrine disorders and female infertility

Subfertility linked to combined luteal insufficiency and uterine progesterone resistance

Human corpus luteum physiology and the luteal-phase dysfunction associated with ovarian stimulation

Soy food and isoflavone intake in relation to semen quality parameters among men from an infertility clinic

Obesity and Infertility

Does male sexual behavior require progesterone?

Progesterone supplement in pregnancy: an immunologic therapy?

Stress can make pregnant women miscarry

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG);The Pregnancy Hormone

Study Shows Why Synthetic Estrogens Wreak Havoc on Reproductive System